Blood into water - stabilization - Plain water has surprising impact on blood pressure (07/8/10)


You can see the tracks laid for each of the tech giants, and there’s no clear way off this path — to downward poll numbers and normal, grubby politics — for any of them.

Soon the cow carcasses were piling up faster than the Tennants could bury them. Family members were being hospitalized for breathing problems and chemical burns. Convinced that the landfill was to blame, the Tennants tried unsuccessfully to get help from environmental agencies. They also considered suing DuPont, but had trouble finding a local lawyer who was willing to sign on.

These findings prompted the American Red Cross to conduct a study of water drinking as a method for reducing fainting responses. The study found that drinking 16 ounces of water before blood donation reduced the fainting response by 20 percent.

Two tubes of EDTA -anticoagulated blood.
Left tube: after standing, the RBCs have settled at the bottom of the tube.
Right tube: Freshly drawn blood

Arterioles are narrower arteries that branch off from the ends of arteries and carry blood to capillaries. They face much lower blood pressures than arteries due to their greater number, decreased blood volume, and distance from the direct pressure of the heart. Thus arteriole walls are much thinner than those of arteries. Arterioles, like arteries, are able to use smooth muscle to control their aperture and regulate blood flow and blood pressure.

­­The cellular portion of blood contains red blood cells (RBCs), white blood cells (WBCs) and platelets. The RBCs carry oxygen from the lungs ; the WBCs help to fight infection; and platelets are parts of cells that the body uses for clotting. All blood cells are produced in the bone marrow . As children, most of our bones produce blood. As we age this gradually diminishes to just the bones of the spine (vertebrae), breastbone (sternum), ribs, pelvis and small parts of the upper arm and leg. Bone marrow that actively produces blood cells is called red marrow, and bone marrow that no longer produces blood cells is called yellow marrow. The process by which the body produces blood is called hematopoiesis . All blood cells (RBCs, WBCs and platelets) come from the same type of cell, called the pluripotential hematopoietic stem cell . This group of cells has the potential to form any of the different types of blood cells and also to reproduce itself. This cell then forms committed stem cells that will form specific types of blood cells.

Hence water, a life-giving and life-preserving substance in most cases, is a killer in this context. If red blood cells were stored in pure water, osmosis would draw the water into the cells, causing them to swell and eventually burst. Similarly, if the cells were placed in a solution with a higher solute concentration, or hypertonic solution, osmosis would draw water out of the cells until they shriveled.

According to the canons of the Church , baptism except in case of necessity is to be administered in churches ( First Provincial Council of Baltimore , Decree 16). The Roman Ritual says: "Churches in which there is a baptismal font , or where there is a baptistery close to the church". The term "baptistery" is commonly used for the space set aside for the conferring of baptism. In like manner the Greeks use photisterion for the same purpose — a word derived from St. Paul's designation of baptism as an "illumination". The words of the Ritual just cited, however, mean by "baptistery" , a separate building constructed for the purpose of administering baptism. Such buildings have been erected both in the East and West , as at Tyre , Padua , Pisa , Florence , and other places. In such baptisteries , besides the font , altars were also built; and here the baptism was conferred. As a rule, however, the church itself contains a railed-off space containing the baptismal font . Anciently fonts were attached only to cathedral churches , but at the present day nearly every parish church has a font . This is the sense of the Baltimore decree above cited. The Second Plenary Council of Baltimore declared, however, that if missionaries judge that the great difficulty of bringing an infant to church is a sufficient reason for baptizing in a private house, then they are to administer the sacrament with all the prescribed rites . The ordinary law of the Church is that when private baptism is conferred, the remaining ceremonies are to be supplied not in the house but in the church itself. The Ritual also directs that the font be of solid material, so that the baptismal water may be safely kept in it. A railing is to surround the font , and a representation of St. John baptizing Christ should adorn it. The cover of the font usually contains the holy oils used in baptism, and this cover must be under lock and key, according to the Ritual . Baptismal water In speaking of the matter of baptism, we stated that true , natural water is all that is required for its validity. In administering solemn baptism, however the Church prescribes that the water used should have been consecrated on Holy Saturday or on the eve of Pentecost . For the liceity (not validity) of the sacrament , therefore, the priest is obliged to use consecrated water. This custom is so ancient that we can not discover its origin. It is found in the most ancient liturgies of the Latin and Greek Churches and is mentioned in the Apostolic Constitutions (VII, 43) . The ceremony of its consecration is striking and symbolic. After signing the water with the cross , the priest divides it with his hand and casts it to the four corners of the earth. This signifies the baptizing of all the nations . Then he breathes upon the water and immerses the paschal candle in it. Next he pours into the water, first the oil of catechumens and then the sacred chrism , and lastly both holy oils together, pronouncing appropriate prayers . But what if during the year, the supply of consecrated water should be insufficient? In that case, the Ritual declares that the priest may add common water to what remains, but only in less quantity . If the consecrated water appears putrid, the priest must examine whether or not it is really so, for the appearance may be caused only by the admixture of the sacred oils. If it has really become putrid, the font is to be renovated and fresh water to be blessed by a form given in the Ritual . In the United States , the Holy See has sanctioned a short formula for the consecration of baptismal water ( Second Plenary Council of Baltimore ). Holy oils In baptism, the priest uses the oil of catechumens , which is olive oil, and chrism , the latter being a mixture of balsam and oil. The oils are consecrated by the bishop on Maundy Thursday . The anointing in baptism is recorded by St. Justin , St. John Chrysostom , and other ancient Fathers . Pope Innocent I declares that the chrism is to be applied to the crown of the head, not to the forehead, for the latter is reserved to bishops . The same may be found in the Sacramentaries of St. Gregory and St. Gelasius ( Martène , I, i). In the Greek Rite the oil of catechumens is blessed by the priest during the baptismal ceremony . Sponsors When infants are solemnly baptized, persons assist at the ceremony to make profession of the faith in the child's name. This practice comes from antiquity and is witnessed to by Tertullian , St. Basil , St. Augustine , and others. Such persons are designated sponsores, offerentes, susceptores, fidejussores, and patrini . The English term is godfather and godmother, or in Anglo-Saxon, gossip . These sponsors, in default of the child's parents , are obliged to instruct it concerning faith and morals . One sponsor is sufficient and not more than two are allowed. In the latter case, one should be male and the other female . The object of these restrictions is the fact that the sponsor contracts a spiritual relationship to the child and its parents which would be an impediment to marriage. Sponsors must themselves be baptized persons having the use of reason and they must have been designated as sponsors by the priest or parents . During the baptism they must physically touch the child either personally or by proxy. They are required, moreover, to have the intention of really assuming the obligations of godparents. It is desirable that they should have been confirmed, but this is not absolutely necessary . Certain persons are prohibited from acting as sponsors. They are: members of religious orders, married persons in respect to each other, or parents to their children, and in general those who are objectionable on such grounds as infidelity , heresy , excommunication , or who are members of condemned secret societies , or public sinners (Sabetti, no. 663). Sponsors are also used in the solemn baptism of adults. They are never necessary in private baptism. Baptismal name From the earliest times names were given in baptism. The priest is directed to see that obscene, fabulous, and ridiculous names, or those of heathen gods or of infidel men be not imposed. On the contrary the priest is to recommend the names of saints . This rubric is not a rigorous precept , but it is an instruction to the priest to do what he can in the matter. If parents are unreasonably obstinate, the priest may add a saint's name to the one insisted upon. Baptismal robe In the primitive Church , a white robe was worn by the newly baptized for a certain period after the ceremony ( St. Ambrose , On the Mysteries 7 ). As solemn baptisms usually took place on the eves of Easter or Pentecost , the white garments became associated with those festivals. Thus, Sabbatum in Albis and Dominica in Albis received their names from the custom of putting off at that time the baptismal robe which had been worn since the previous vigil of Easter . It is thought that the English name for Pentecost — Whitsunday or Whitsuntide , also derived its appellation from the white garments of the newly baptized . In our present ritual, a white veil is placed momentarily on the head of the catechumen as a substitute for the baptismal robe. Ceremonies of baptism The rites that accompany the baptismal ablution are as ancient as they are beautiful. The writings of the early Fathers and the antique liturgies show that most of them are derived from Apostolic times. The infant is brought to the door of the church by the sponsors, where it is met by the priest . After the godparents have asked faith from the Church of God in the child's name, the priest breathes upon its face and exorcises the evil spirit . St. Augustine (Ep. cxciv, Ad Sixtum) makes use of this Apostolic practice of exorcising to prove the existence of original sin . Then the infant's forehead and breast are signed with the cross , the symbol of redemption . Next follows the imposition of hands , a custom certainly as old as the Apostles . Some blessed salt is now placed in the mouth of the child. "When salt ", says the Catechism of the Council of Trent "is put into the mouth of person to be baptized, it evidently imports that, by the doctrine of faith and the gift of grace , he should be delivered from the corruption of sin , experience a relish for good works, and be delighted with the food of divine wisdom." Placing his stole over the child the priest introduces it into the church, and on the way to the font the sponsors make a profession of faith for the infant. The priest now touches the ears and nostrils of the child with spittle. The symbolic meaning is thus explained (Cat. C. Trid.) "His nostrils and ears are next touched with spittle and he is immediately sent to the baptismal font , that, as sight was restored to the blind man mentioned in the Gospel , whom the Lord , after having spread clay over his eyes, commanded to wash them in the waters of Siloe ; so also he may understand that the efficacy of the sacred ablution is such as to bring light to the mind to discern heavenly truth ." The catechumen now makes the triple renunciation of Satan , his works and his pomps, and he is anointed with the oil of catechumens on the breast and between the shoulders: "On the breast, that by the gift of the Holy Ghost , he may cast off error and ignorance and may receive the true faith , 'for the just man liveth by faith' ( Galatians 3:11 ); on the shoulders, that by the grace of the Holy Spirit , he may shake off negligence and torpor and engage in the performance of good works ; ' faith without works is dead' ( James 2:26 )", says the Catechism. The infant now, through its sponsors, makes a declaration of faith and asks for baptism. The priest , having meantime changed his violet stole for a white one, then administers the threefold ablution, making the sign of the cross three times with the stream of water he pours on the head of the child, saying at the same time : "N___, I baptize thee in the name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Ghost ." The sponsors during the ablution either hold the child or at least touch it. If the baptism be given by immersion, the priest dips the back part of the head three times into the water in the form of a cross, pronouncing the sacramental words. The crown of the child's head is now anointed with chrism , "to give him to understand that from that day he is united as a member to Christ , his head, and engrafted on His body; and therefore he is called a Christian from Christ , but Christ from chrism " (Catech.). A white veil is now put on the infant's head with the words: "Receive this white garment, which mayest thou carry without stain before the judgment seat of Our Lord Jesus Christ , that thou mayest have eternal life . Amen ." Then a lighted candle is placed in the catechumen's hand, the priest saying: "Receive this burning light, and keep thy baptism so as to be without blame. Observe the commandments of God ; that, when Our Lord shall come to His nuptials, thou mayest meet Him together with all the Saints and mayest have life everlasting , and live for ever and ever. Amen ." The new Christian is then bidden to go in peace. In the baptism of adults, all the essential ceremonies are the same as for infants. There are, however, some impressive additions. The priest wears the cope over his other vestments , and he should be attended by a number of clerics or at least by two. While the catechumen waits outside the church door, the priest recites some prayers at the altar . Then he proceeds to the place where the candidate is, and asks him the questions and performs the exorcisms almost as prescribed in the ritual for infants. Before administering the blessed salt , however, he requires the catechumen to make an explicit renunciation of the form of error to which he had formerly adhered, and he is then signed with the cross on the brow, ears, eyes, nostrils, mouth, breast, and between the shoulders. Afterwards, the candidate, on bended knees , recites three several times the Lord's Prayer , and a cross is made on his forehead, first by the godfather and then by the priest . After this, taking him by the hand, the priest leads him into the church, where he adores prostrate and then rising he recites the Apostles' Creed and the Lord's Prayer . The other ceremonies are practically the same as for infants. It is to be noted that owing to the difficulty of carrying out with proper splendor the ritual for baptizing adults, the bishops of the United States obtained permission from the Holy See to make use of the ceremonial of infant baptism instead. This general dispensation lasted until 1857, when the ordinary law of the Church went into force. ( See COUNCILS OF BALTIMORE.) Some American dioceses , however, obtained individual permissions to continue the use of the ritual for infants when administering adult baptism. Metaphorical baptism The name "baptism" is sometimes applied improperly to other ceremonies . Baptism of bells This name has been given to the blessing of bells , at least in France , since the eleventh century. It is derived from the washing of the bell with holy water by the bishop , before he anoints it with the oil of the infirm without and with chrism within. A fuming censer is then placed under it. The bishop prays that these sacramentals of the Church may, at the sound of the bell , put the demons to flight, protect from storms, and call the faithful to prayer . Baptism of ships At least since the time of the Crusades , rituals have contained a blessing for ships. The priest begs God to bless the vessel and protect those who sail in it, as He did the ark of Noah , and Peter , when the Apostle was sinking in the sea. The ship is then sprinkled with holy water .
About this page APA citation. Fanning, W. (1907). Baptism. In The Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company. http:///cathen/

Hyponatremia, a word cobbled together from Latin and Greek roots, translates as "insufficient salt in the blood." Quantitatively speaking, it means having a blood sodium concentration below 135 millimoles per liter, or approximately ounces per gallon, the normal concentration lying somewhere between 135 and 145 millimoles per liter. Severe cases of hyponatremia can lead to water intoxication, an illness whose symptoms include headache, fatigue, nausea, vomiting, frequent urination and mental disorientation.

In humans the kidneys control the amount of water, salts and other solutes leaving the body by sieving blood through their millions of twisted tubules. When a person drinks too much water in a short period of time, the kidneys cannot flush it out fast enough and the blood becomes waterlogged. Drawn to regions where the concentration of salt and other dissolved substances is higher, excess water leaves the blood and ultimately enters the cells, which swell like balloons to accommodate it.

Most cells have room to stretch because they are embedded in flexible tissues such as fat and muscle, but this is not the case for neurons. Brain cells are tightly packaged inside a rigid boney cage, the skull, and they have to share this space with blood and cerebrospinal fluid, explains Wolfgang Liedtke, a clinical neuroscientist at Duke University Medical Center. "Inside the skull there is almost zero room to expand and swell," he says.

Thus, brain edema, or swelling, can be disastrous. "Rapid and severe hyponatremia causes entry of water into brain cells leading to brain swelling, which manifests as seizures, coma, respiratory arrest, brain stem herniation and death," explains M. Amin Arnaout, chief of nephrology at Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School.

Where did people get the idea that guzzling enormous quantities of water is healthful? A few years ago Heinz Valtin, a kidney specialist from Dartmouth Medical School, decided to determine if the common advice to drink eight, eight-ounce glasses of water per day could hold up to scientific scrutiny. After scouring the peer-reviewed literature, Valtin concluded that no scientific studies support the "eight x eight" dictum (for healthy adults living in temperate climates and doing mild exercise). In fact, drinking this much or more "could be harmful, both in precipitating potentially dangerous hyponatremia and exposure to pollutants, and also in making many people feel guilty for not drinking enough," he wrote in his 2002 review for the American Journal of Physiology—Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology . And since he published his findings, Valtin says, "not a single scientific report published in a peer-reviewed publication has proven the contrary."

Most cases of water poisoning do not result from simply drinking too much water, says Joseph Verbalis, chairman of medicine at Georgetown University Medical Center. It is usually a combination of excessive fluid intake and increased secretion of vasopression (also called antidiuretic hormone), he explains. Produced by the hypothalamus and secreted into the bloodstream by the posterior pituitary gland, vasopressin instructs the kidneys to conserve water. Its secretion increases in periods of physical stress—during a marathon, for example—and may cause the body to conserve water even if a person is drinking excessive quantities.

Every hour, a healthy kidney at rest can excrete 800 to 1,000 milliliters, or to gallon, of water and therefore a person can drink water at a rate of 800 to 1,000 milliliters per hour without experiencing a net gain in water, Verbalis explains. If that same person is running a marathon, however, the stress of the situation will increase vasopressin levels, reducing the kidney's excretion capacity to as low as 100 milliliters per hour. Drinking 800 to 1,000 milliliters of water per hour under these conditions can potentially lead a net gain in water, even with considerable sweating, he says.

While exercising, "you should balance what you're drinking with what you're sweating," and that includes sports drinks, which can also cause hyponatremia when consumed in excess, Verbalis advises. "If you're sweating 500 milliliters per hour, that is what you should be drinking."

But measuring sweat output is not easy. How can a marathon runner, or any person, determine how much water to consume? As long as you are healthy and equipped with a thirst barometer unimpaired by old age or mind-altering drugs, follow Verbalis's advice, "drink to your thirst. It's the best indicator."


Blood Into Water - StabilizationBlood Into Water - StabilizationBlood Into Water - StabilizationBlood Into Water - Stabilization

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